Chapter 33

Precision Viticulture

(book excerpts)

Precision viticulture is generally considered to be the application of one or more of the geospatial technologies and other related devices, tools and techniques that use spatial location for the purposes of collecting, processing, analyzing, and visualizing environmental data collected in a vineyard. Precision viticulture is considered to be an approach to wine production based on recognition of the fact that the productivity of vineyards and individual blocks within a vineyard can be inherently variable over space and time because of differences in topography, soils, soil moisture, slope and aspect, plant health and vigor, microclimate and management practices. Variability in the environment ultimately leads to variability in grape yield (quantity) and quality and ultimately wine production. There are four major components of technology used for precision viticulture management practices. They are global positioning systems (GPS), remote sensing, geographical information systems (GIS), and variable rate application (VRA). The global positioning system (GPS) is a satellite constellation used to geo-reference spatially referenced vineyard data (e.g., soil samples, yields, etc.), or some other grapevine management practice within the vineyard block. Geographic information system (GIS) enables the convenient capture, storage, manipulation, and management of spatially aligned, geographic data layers. Remote sensing refers to capture of digital imagery of the Earth’s surface by aircraft and satellite. Variable-rate application (VRA) describes any technology, which enables growers to vary the rate of inputs.

Click on the following topics for more information on precision viticulture.

Topics Within This Chapter:

  • Introduction to Precision Viticulture
  • Global Positioning System
  • Receiver Types
  • GPS Errors
  • Differential Correction
  • Types of Correction
  • Datums and Coordinate Systems
  • Datum
  • Coordinate Systems
  • Remote Sensing
  • Remote Sensing Platforms
  • Satellite Remote Sensing
  • Airborne Remote Sensing
  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
  • Ground-based Monitoring Systems
  • The Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • Interaction Processes
  • Reflectance Properties of Soil, Water, and Plants
  • Vegetation Indices
  • Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)
  • Plant Cell Density (PCD) or Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI)
  • Characteristics of Remote Sensors
  • Spatial Resolution
  • Spectral Resolution
  • Radiometric Resolution
  • Temporal Resolution
  • Use of Remote Sensing Data
  • Remote Sensing Data and Image Errors
  • Satellite Imagery Providers
  • Geographical Information System
  • Characteristics of Maps
  • Data Formats
  • Vector Format
  • Raster Format
  • GIS Data Types
  • Attribute Data
  • Spatial Data
  • Coordinate Systems
  • Local Coordinates
  • Latitude/Longitude Coordinates
  • UTM Coordinates
  • State Plane Coordinates
  • Using all Coordinate Systems
  • Methods Used to Analyze Precision Vineyard Data
  • Nearest Neighbor
  • Local Average
  • Inverse Distance Weighting
  • Contouring
  • Kriging
  • Computer Hardware and Software
  • Data Input
  • Primary Data Sources
  • Secondary Data Sources
  • PC Card
  • Digitizing and Scanning Maps
  • Digitizing
  • Scanning
  • Data Manipulation and Analysis
  • Variable-rate Application Technology
  • Options for Implementing Variable-Rate Application (VRA)
  • Map-based Variable-rate Application
  • Sensor-based Variable-rate Application
  • Components of Variable-rate Applicators
  • Sensors
  • Controllers
  • Actuators
  • Precision Viticulture Applications
  • Canopy and Vigor Monitoring
  • Crop Load Management
  • Berry Quality Sampling
  • Harvest Planning
  • Disease Management
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks
  • System Architecture
  • Irrigation Management
  • Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)
  • Sap-flow Measurements
  • Planting Vines
  • Scouting Vineyards
  • Soil Mapping
  • Non-contact Sensor Measurements
  • Contact Sensor Measurements
  • Weed Control
  • Yield Monitoring
  • References