Chapter 25

Pesticides for Grapevines

(book excerpts)

Pesticides include any substances used either to directly control pest populations or to prevent or reduce damage to the crops in the vineyard. There are many pesticides available for use in vineyards, all of which control specific pests. Although many pesticides are designed to kill pests, some may only inhibit their growth, or simply attract or repel them. There are several approaches to the classification of pesticide types. Pesticides are often referred to according to the type of pest they control. For example, fungicides target fungal diseases, insecticides are pesticides that target insects, and herbicides target weeds. Pesticides can also be organized by their chemical class. There are many classes of synthetic pesticides. The main classes consist of organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids. Conventional or chemical pesticides as those having a broad spectrum of activity and being more detrimental to natural enemies. Another way of classifying pesticides is how or when they work—contact, systemic, pre-emergence, post-emergence, selective, and nonselective (or broad-spectrum). Pesticides can be grouped according to their mode of action or the way a pesticide controls the target pest. This is also referred to the primary site of action. For example, one insecticide may affect an insect’s nerves while another may affect molting. Pesticides can also be classified as biorationals—pesticides that are more selective because they are most effective against pests with certain feeding habits, at certain life stages, or within certain taxonomic groups. These are also known as “least toxic” pesticides. Because the biorationals are generally less toxic and more selective, they are generally less harmful to natural enemies and the environment. A similar term used is “biopesticides.”

Click on the following topics for more information on pesticides for grapevines.

Topics Within This Chapter:

  • Fungicides
  • Mobility
  • Contact Fungicides
  • Systemic Fungicides
  • Mode of Action
  • Breadth of Activity
  • Single-Site
  • Multi-site
  • General Function
  • Protectants
  • Curatives
  • Insecticides
  • Methods of Application
  • Contact
  • Systemic
  • Mode of Action
  • Breadth of Activity
  • Broad Spectrum
  • Target-Specific
  • Herbicides
  • Methods of Application
  • Soil-Applied Herbicides
  • Foliar-Applied Herbicides
  • Time of Application
  • Pre-Emergence
  • Post-Emergence
  • Mode of Action
  • Mobility
  • Contact Herbicides
  • Systemic Herbicides
  • Target Site
  • Selective Herbicides
  • Non-Selective Herbicides
  • Chemical Pesticides
  • Types of Chemical Pesticides
  • Biorationals
  • Types of Biorationals
  • Microbials
  • Botanicals
  • Spray Oils
  • Insecticidal Soaps
  • Minerals
  • Insect Pheromones
  • Insect Growth Regulators
  • Pesticide Formulations
  • Liquid Formulations
  • Liquid Flowables
  • Emulsifiable Concentrate
  • Solutions
  • Dry or Solid Formulations
  • Dusts
  • Granules
  • Pellets
  • Wettable Powders
  • Soluble Powder
  • Water-Dispersible Granules or Dry Flowables
  • Other Formulations
  • Microencapsulated Pesticides
  • Water-Soluble Packets
  • Spray Adjuvants
  • Types of Adjuvants
  • Buffers or pH Modifiers
  • Conditioning Agents
  • Compatibility Agents
  • Defoaming Agents
  • Drift Control Additives
  • Emulsifiers
  • Extenders
  • Stickers
  • Surfactants
  • Thickeners
  • Pre-Mix versus Tank-Mix Pesticidess
  • Pre-Mixed Pesticides
  • Tank-Mixed Pesticides
  • Compatibility of Pesticides
  • Managing Pesticide Resistance
  • Guidelines in Managing Pesticide Resistance
  • Adopt an Integrated Pest Management Plan
  • Consider Alternative (non-chemical) Pest Management Measures
  • Avoid Persistent Chemicals
  • Apply Only Recommended Pesticide Application Rates
  • Optimal Spray Coverage
  • Pesticide Mixtures
  • Use Different Modes of Action
  • Use Long-Term Rotations
  • Pesticide Laws and Regulations
  • Federal
  • Pesticide Product Labels
  • Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
  • Pesticide Registration
  • Licenses
  • Government Regulation of Adjuvants
  • Mixing Pesticides
  • Record Keeping
  • States
  • Selected References