Chapter 3

Wine Grape Rootstocks

(book excerpts)

Until the mid-1800s, European vinifera vineyards consisted of own-rooted vines. The inadvertent introduction of phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) with the importation of American grape varieties changed that, and the European wine industry was nearly destroyed. American grape varieties that evolved in the presence of phylloxera are tolerant to their feeding, meaning the vines can survive and be productive in the presence of phylloxera. Vinifera grapevines are susceptible (have no tolerance) to feeding by phylloxera. While many native varieties can be grown successfully on their own roots, V. vinifera and many hybrid varieties need to be grafted. Aside from phylloxera resistance, rootstocks can be used to combat other soil-borne pests, primarily nematodes. They may also be used to overcome vineyard problems such as drought, adaptability to high pH soils, adaptability to saline soils, adaptability to low pH soils, and adaptability to wet or poorly drained soils. Numerous reports have also proved the rootstocks affect vine growth, yield, fruit quality, and wine quality. These effects take place in a more or less indirect manner and are consequences of interactions between environmental factors and the physiology of the scion and the rootstock varieties employed.

Click on the following topics for more information on wine grape rootstocks.

Topics Within This Chapter:

  • Rootstock Species
  • North American Species
  • Vitis rupestris
  • Vitis berlandieri
  • Vitis riparia
  • Vitis champini
  • North American Hybrids
  • V. riparia X V. rupestris
  • V. berlandieri X V. riparia
  • V. berlandieri X V. rupestris
  • Choosing the Right Rootstocks
  • Resistance to Soil-Borne Pests
  • Environmental Tolerance
  • Drought Tolerance
  • Calcareous Soil Conditions
  • Saline Soil Conditions
  • Acidic Soil Conditions
  • Influence on the Scion
  • Vine Vigor
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Ripening Time
  • Grapevine Rootstock Selections
  • V. riparia x V. rupestris Crosses
  • Couderc 3309 (3309C)
  • Millardet et de Grasset 101-14 (101-14 Mgt)
  • Schwarzmann
  • V. berlandieri x V. riparia Crosses
  • Couderc 161-49 (161-49C)
  • Kober 125AA (125AA)
  • Kober 5BB (5BB)
  • Millardet et de Grasset 420A (420A Mgt)
  • Selection Oppenheim (SO4)
  • Teleki 5C (5C)
  • V. berlandieri x V. rupestris Crosses
  • Paulsen 1103 (1103P)
  • Richter 99 (99R)
  • Richter 110 (110R)
  • Ruggeri 140 (140Ru)
  • V. riparia x V. solonis Crosses
  • Couderc 1616 (1616C)
  • V. cordifolia x V. riparia x V. rupestris Crosses
  • Malègue 44-53 (44-53M)
  • V. riparia
  • Riparia Gloire
  • V. rupestris
  • Rupestris du Lot (St. George)
  • V. champini
  • Ramsey
  • References