Pesticides for Grapevines
Strategies for Managing Pesticide Resistance
Pesticide resistance is a genetically based phenomenon. Resistance occurs when a pest population— insects, for instance—is exposed to repeated applications of a pesticide. After a period, the pest may develop resistance to a chemical so that the chemical no longer effectively controls the pest at the same rate, and higher rates and more frequent applications become necessary until eventually the chemical provides little or no control.
Scouting is one of the key activities in the implementation of an insecticide resistance management strategy.
Focus on Economic Thresholds
The decision to use an insecticide, or take some other action, against an insect infestation requires an understanding of the level of damage or insect infestation the vineyard can tolerate without an unacceptable economic loss.
Adopting Integrated Pest Management Practices
Integrated pest management (IPM) strategies involves compiling detailed, timely information about the vineyard and its pests to ensure that pest management decisions are economically, environmentally, and socially sound. IPM places emphasis on multiple means of control, rather than relying on a single management tactic.
Avoid Tank Mixes
Never combine two pesticides with the same mode of action in a tank mix.
Avoid Persistent Chemicals
Insects with resistant genes will be selected over susceptible ones whenever pesticide concentrations kill only the susceptible pests.
Use Recommended Label Rates
Using lower pesticide rates other than recommended by the manufacture increases the risk of pests surviving the initial contact, thereby increasing the potential for resistance.
Optimal Spray Coverage
Another means of retarding pesticide resistance is to increase the effectiveness of pesticide application.
Using Selective Pesticides
Using selective pesticides often have the advantage of producing less damage against harmless (and potentially beneficial) pests.
Use Different Modes of Action
When resistance to a pesticide arises, not only does this resistance render the selecting compound ineffective, but it also confers cross-resistance to other chemically related compounds. This is because compounds within a specific chemical group usually share a common mode of action (MoA).
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Within This Chapter: Pesticides for Grapevines
- Introduction to Pesticides for Grapevines
- Pesticide Classification
- Strategies for Managing Pesticide Resistance
- Pesticide Formulations
- Spray Adjuvants
- Pesticide Labels
- Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
- Pesticide Laws and Regulations
- Pesticides' Influence on Wine Quality