Chapter 24

Pesticides for Grapevines

Pesticide Formulations

Pesticides are not sold as pure chemicals or active ingredients, but instead, as active ingredients combined or mixed with other inert ingredients such as solvents, diluents, or adjuvants. The final product containing the active ingredient and the added materials is called a formulation. The purpose for formulations is to increase pesticide activity, improve uniform application, extend the stability of the active ingredient, provide a longer shelf-life, convenient packaging, and improve user safety. A pesticide active ingredient in a relatively pure form is rarely suitable for vineyard application.

Dry Formulations

Granular (G)

The manufacture of granular formulations is similar to that of dusts except that the active ingredient is absorbed onto a larger particle.

Wettable Powders (WP)

Wettable powders are dry, powdered pesticide formulations that resemble dusts. Unlike dusts, however, they contain wetting and dispersing agents. These are chemicals used to help wet the powder and disperse it throughout the tank.

Soluble Powder (SP or WSP)

This is a dry formulation that contains a high percent active ingredient. Soluble powders look like wettable powders, but they form a true solution when added to water.

Water-dispersible Granules (WDG) or Dry Flowables (DF)

Water-dispersible granules, also known as dry flowables, are like wettable powders except instead of being dust like they are formulated as small, easily measured granules.

Water-soluble Packets (WSB or WSP)

Water-soluble packets reduce the mixing and handling hazards of some highly toxic pesticides.

Liquid Formulations

Liquid Flowables (L or F)

Liquid flowables are made with active ingredients that do not dissolve well in water or oil. The active ingredient is very finely ground and suspended in a liquid along with suspending agents, adjuvants, and other ingredients.

Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC or E)

Emulsifiable concentrates consist of an oil-soluble active ingredient dissolved in an appropriate oil-based solvent to which an emulsifying agent is added.

Suspension Concentrate (SC)

A stable suspension of solid pesticide(s) in a fluid usually intended for dilution with water before use.

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